In Livonian, there is a small set of word forms denoting locality or time and answering the questions where? and when?, and can be considered forms of the essive case on the basis of their case endings just as similar forms in other Finnic languages. The article studies these forms and related forms of the lative, sublative, and excessive case forms, answering the questions to where? to when?, and from where? from when?, and their history. In addition, word forms formally identical with the dative forms but used as adverbials of state are as forms of essive extracted from the dative, and their usage types are identified.
Full article: Tiit-Rein Viitso, The essive in Livonian [ESUKA – JEFUL 2016, 7–1]