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The aim of this article is to give an overview of the Livonian sound system and pronunciation. Regarding Livonian dialectal variation, the main difference is between East and West Livonian, while Central Livonian forms a transition area. The basis of the Livonian written language is the East Courland dialect. This article focuses on standard pronunciation, with some discussion of variation. Vowels and consonants are treated separately. In addition, Livonian prosodic features are discussed. Livonian stands out as being a Finnic language that has been influenced by the Baltic language, Latvian. Unlike many other Finnic languages, Livonian has voiced stops and fri catives, which can occur as long geminates. There is a large number of short and long monophthongs, diphthongs, and triphthongs in Livonian.

ESUKA/JEFUL. Special Issue “Studies on Livonian II”. 2016.

Full article: Main features of the Livonian sound system and pronunciation [ESUKA – JEFUL 2016, 7–1]